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Reading list

Topic 1. Sociocultural perspective on motivation: What, where, why, who, and how?

______Rueda, R., & Moll, L.C. (1994). A sociocultural perspective on motivation. In H. F. O'Neil & M. Drillings (Eds.), Motivation: Theory and research. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (option I) due 01/29 (W)

Eugene's questions:

  1. What are the differences between traditional and sociocultural approaches to motivation? What are questions that traditional approaches to motivation try to address? What is a sociocultural definition of motivation?
  2. Where is motivation situated in a sociocultural approach? Give your own examples.
  3. What is the pattern of Latino students academic achievement? How are traditional approaches explaining the pattern? How can a sociocultural approach explain the pattern? What is your explanation of the pattern?
  4. What was the authors' evidence that Latino students' motivation can be task-, situation, and activity-depended?
  5. What did the researcher change to make the students interested in the classroom writing? Why do you think many students' motivation changed? What was the evidence of students' interest?
  6. What is the "social context of motivation"? What is constituted of? What was the teachers' role and how it changed from a traditional one?
  7. What had been the definition of writing for Esteban? What type of motivation had emerged from such definition of writing? What made Esteban change his attitude to writing? What became a new definition of writing? What type of motivation emerged from the new definition of writing for Esteban? What have you learned from this example?
  8. Why do you think many students seem to have motivational problems in school but not outside the school? How can schools be changed to increase motivation in students?

______Rueda, R., & Dembo, M. H. (1995). Motivational processes in learning: A comparative analysis of cognitive and sociocultural frameworks. In M. L. Maehr & P. R. Pinntrich (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement: Culture, motivation and achievement, Vol. 9. London: JAI Press. (option II) due 01/29 (W)

Eugene's questions:

  1. What involves in a cognitive approach to motivation? What are questions that a cognitive approach to motivation tries to address? What are three components of motivation in a cognitive approach? Give your own examples of these components.
  2. What is the difference in the "mastery" versus "performance" definitions of schooling? In your own schooling experience, which model described better the schools you have been participating? Which type of schooling you like more and why?
  3. How do a specificity of the goal and task value relate to motivation? Give your own examples. What are the gender differences in task value of academic achievement? What is the evidence supporting the claim about gender differences? What are "self-efficacy," "control beliefs," and "attribution beliefs" (give examples) and how do they relate to each other (discuss learned helplessness and confidence)? What is students' "safe strategy" of protecting their self-esteem in school, why and how does it work, and how teachers contribute in it?
  4. What are the differences between cognitive and sociocultural approaches to motivation? What is sociocultural definition f motivation? Give examples.
  5. How can Mr. Patterson's classroom be characterized? What was the apparent reason for Alex's low motivation and achievement in the school (specifically in math)? What were his concerns? How were the cognitive intervention efforts defined? Do you think they were adequate?
  6. What questions do a sociocultural approach generate regarding to Alex's low school motivation? What does it mean "motivation is a culturally mediated norm"? Give examples.
  7. How does teacher-students collaboration (or its lack) relate to motivation? What are sociocultural "interventions"? Do you think they were adequate?

Topic 2. Motivational processes in institutions with diverse philosophies of teaching and learning

______Rogoff, B., Matusov, E., & White, C. (1996). Models of learning in a community of learners. In D. R. Olson & N. Torrance (Eds.). Handbook of education and human development: New models of learning, teaching, and schooling. London: Basil Blackwell. (option I) due 02/05 (W)

Eugene's questions:

  1. What are the three educational philosophies? Why are the adult-run and children-run philosophies are one-sided? Why is not the community of learner philosophy the midpoint between the other two philosophies? How does educational philosophy different from beliefs about teaching and learning?
  2. What do you think are the reasons why the adult-run educational philosophy is mainstream in US schools? Do you know any country where educational philosophy of mainstream schools are different? Do you know US schools with non-adult-run educational philosophy?
  3. Who is responsible for providing guidance and maintaining interests in the three philosophies of teaching and learning?
  4. What are learning curriculum (in contrast to teaching curriculum) for students and assessment of students' learning in each of the three educational philosophies?
  5. Describe the community of learner educational philosophy.
  6. What are definitions of motivation in each of the three educational philosophies?

______Lewin, K., Lippett, R., & White, R. K. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created "social climates." Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 271-299. (option II) due 02/05 (W)

Eugene's questions:

  1. What is philosophy of leadership? What types philosophy of leadership are discussed? What are the differences among them? Which type of leadership (and their combination) can describe a traditional US school and why?
  2. What was the ownership of decision making in the three philosophies of leadership? What were types of leader's participation in the activity?
  3. How did children's motivation relate to different philosophies of leaders and why? What was the evidence for that? How did children's motivation change with the change of type of leader and why? How do you think motivation relate to "space of free movement"?
  4. Do you think that democratic philosophy of leadership is beneficial for all children?
  5. What have you learned from the paper?

Topic 3. Cultural variations and similarities in motivational processes

______Ogbu, J. U. (1987). Variability in minority school performance: A problem in search of an explanation. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 18(4), 312-334. (option I) due 02/12 (W).

Eugene's questions:

  1. What were/are traditional explanation of minorities poor academic achievements? How is Ogbu's approach is different from traditional approaches? What are Ogbu's criticism of traditional approaches? What new evidence did Ogbu bring? What new question did he raise?
  2. What are the problems that minority children often face in schools according to Ogbu?
  3. Why do involuntary minorities do poorly in schools in contrast with immigrant minorities? What are "primary" and "secondary" cultural differences? Give your own examples.
  4. How does motivation relate minority status, history, ways of copying in often hostile majority environment, and "folk theory of success," according to Ogbu? How does oppositional identity contribute to lack of motivation in involuntary minority? Give example. Can you find your own supportive and counter examples?
  5. How does Ogbu define academic failure in minorities? Is Ogbu concerned about systematic school failure both in minority and majority? Does he call for change in school?

______Hawkins, J. N. (1994). Issues of Motivation in Asian Education. In H. F. O'Neil & M. Drillings (Eds.), Motivation: Theory and research. Hillsadale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (option II) due 02/12 (W).

Eugene's questions:

  1. What is Hawkins' definition of motivation and how it relates of other definitions of motivation? Do agree with his definition?
  2. How does Confucianism contribute to school motivation among many students from East Asia, according to Hawkins? What is the role of family (and especially mothers) and school in this process?
  3. How does history and culture contributes to motivational processes? Give your own examples.
  4. What are the historical difference and similarities among China, Japan, and Korea regarding adaptation of Confucian traditions?
  5. What is Confucian attitude and definition of "rote" learning? What are skills required in the student to make "rote" learning interesting?
  6. How do children learn Confucian values in these cultures?
  7. What are gender difference in Confucianism and motivation in East Asian students? How it can be explained?
  8. What are the differences in self-esteem, locus of control, collaborative work, and economic expectations between American and Japanese students and how were they explained?

Topic 4. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: Where did they come from?

______Rigby, C. S., Deci, E. D., Patrick, B. C., & Ryan, R. M. (1992). Beyond the intrinsic - extrinsic dichotomy: Self-determination in motivation and learning. Motivation and Education, 16 (3), 165-185. (option I) due 02/19 (W).

Eugene's questions:

  1. What kinds of educational philosophies fits to the authors' description of traditional schools and informal learning?
  2. Hoe do extrinsic and intrinsic motivation fit to educational philosophies? What are extrinsic and intrinsic motivations? Give your own examples. What is the relationship between extrinsic motivation and control? What is the relationship between intrinsic motivation and mastery and agency?
  3. How do extrinsic rewards relate intrinsic motivation? Why is intrinsic motivation important?
  4. How self-determination can benefit from extrinsic motivation? What are limitations of promoting exclusively intrinsic motivation? How does this discussion relate the discussion of one-sided and mutual philosophies of teaching and learning?
  5. Describe forms of regulation and discuss how they relate to types of motivation.
  6. Describe the relationship between motivation and learning.
  7. What do you think type of teacher-student social interaction and social context highly promotes self-determined forms of motivation? What is the evidence for that? What educational philosophy promotes that social context?

______Ryan, R. M. (1993). Agency and organization: Intrinsic motivation, autonomy, and the self in psychological development. In J. E. Jacobs (Ed.), Developmental perspectives on motivation: Nebraska symposium on motivation, Vol. 40., London: University of Nebraska Press. (option II) due 02/19 (W).

Eugene's questions:

  1. What is self-regulated autonomous activity and how is it relate to development of agency, quality of relatedness, and motivation?
  2. What is relationship between autonomy and guidance provided by others? Discuss different types of guidance (e.g., coercive, collaborative, laissez-faire).
  3. What is the relationship between perceived locus of control and extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, alienated and autonomous labor? How does alienation relate to extrinsic motivation? What is internal extrinsic motivation and its development? Give your own examples.
  4. Describe autonomy – what is and what it is not (and why) -- and give your own examples. What is Ryan's critique of Bandura's notion of "self-efficacy"? Why is not autonomy independence? Give examples.
  5. What kind of social interaction and educational philosophies promote autonomy and autonomous motivation? Give examples?
  6. Why do you think adults and teachers in US very often use extrinsic motivation in their work with children and students?
  7. Describe development of autonomy. How does development of autonomy relate to quality of relatedness? Why does Rayn say, "although the 'telos' of internalization is the integration of culture and self, mere compliance with culture is not necessarily a desirable developmental end?"

Topic 5. Motivation as morality and ways of life

______Mitchell, R. G. Jr. (1988). Sociological implications of the flow experience. In M. Csikszentmihalyi & I. S. Csikszentmihalyi (Eds.), Optimal experience: Psychological studies of flow in consciousness. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. (option I) due 02/26 (W).

Eugene's questions:

  1. What is "flow" and how does it relate to intrinsic autonomous motivation? Give your own examples.
  2. What are alienation and anomie? What defines them? What is the relationship between alienation and anomie and motivation? Compare anomie, flow, and alienation? What kind of educational philosophies fit each of them? Give examples.
  3. What is the relationship between motivation and quality of life?
  4. How do recreational and work activities complement each other in a pendulum swings and why? Do you agree with this theory?
  5. What are effects of rationalization on flow and intrinsic motivation? Discuss, instrumentality, product-, and process-oriented activities. What are ways out to flow?

______Subbotsky, E. (1995). The development of pragmatic and non-pragmatic motivation. Human Development, 38, 217-234. (option II) due 02/26 (W).

Eugene's questions:

  1. What are pragmatic and non-pragmatic motivation? Give examples. How do they relate to extrinsic, intrinsic, and autonomous types motivation? How do they relate to educational philosophies?
  2. What were traditional approaches to motivation, according to Subbotsky? How do they relate to educational philosophies?
  3. What is the relationship between motivation and morality?
  4. How can delinquent behavior in adolescence be explained with reference to prevalence a specific approach to a development of motivation in many industrial societies? What is evidence for that?
  5. Describe empirical evidence for pragmatic and non-pragmatic behavior presented by Subbotsky. What have you learned from it? How does real or perceived surveillance impact child's motivation? Give example of external and internal pragmatic motivation.
  6. What social contexts promote pragmatic and non-pragmatic types of motivation? Why is it difficult for many adults to support development of non-pragmatic motivation in children?

Topic 6. Development of motivation in early childhood

______Busch-Rossnagel, N. A., Knauf-Jesnsen, D. E., & DesRosiers, F. S. (1995). Mothers and others: The role of the socializing environment in the development of mastery motivation. In R. H. MacTurk & G. A. Morgan (Eds.), Mastery motivation : Origins, conceptualizations, and applications, Vol. 12. Norwood, N.J. : Ablex (option I). due 03/05 (W).

Eugene's questions:

  1. What is "mastery motivation"? What are types of mastery motivation? How can be this concept criticized? How can it be measured? What are developmental changes of motivation in the infancy?
  2. What is the "zone of proximal development" and how does it relate to development of motivation?
  3. How do mother's sensitivity and control relate to development of infant's mastery motivation?
  4. What are roles of inanimate environment, emotional communication, and activities in ZPD for development of infant's mastery of motivation? Give examples.

______Messer, D. J. (1995). Mastery Motivation: Past, present and future. In R. H. MacTurk & G. A. Morgan (Eds.), Mastery motivation : Origins, conceptualizations, and applications, Vol. 12. Norwood, N.J. : Ablex. (option II) due 03/05 (W).

Eugene's questions:

  1. What is "mastery motivation" and how is it measured? How can be this concept critisized?
  2. What are main changes in infants' activities and what are approximate ages of these changes? What development of motivation accompanies these changes?
  3. What are Wachs' three types of infant's motivation? What is author's speculation about development of social motivation in infants?
  4. How does infant's mastery motivation relate to secure attachment?
  5. What are proposed future directions for study of development of motivation in infancy and critiques of the current research? How does motivation relate to selection (choice), engagement, and interest?

Topic 7. Development of motivation in adolescence

______Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Rathundle, K., (1993). The measurement of flow in everyday life: Toward a theory of emergent motivation. In J. E. Jacobs (Ed.), Developmental perspectives on motivation: Nebraska symposium on motivation, Vol. 40., London: University of Nebraska Press. (option I) due 03/12 (W).

Eugene's questions:

  1. What is the difference in process- versus product-oriented measurements of motivation? What is the flow experience? What are their characteristics? How do these experiences relate to enjoyment and rewards? Give examples.
  2. What are the methods of measuring the flow experiences?
  3. What are the flow activities in talented adolescence? How do relationships of one's challenges and skills create subject states of one's experiences? How do they relate to activities?
  4. What are consequences of the flow experiences? What were the differences in flow quadrants between "committed" and "uncommitted" adolescents? What type of activities and in what quadrants produce the difference among the groups and why?
  5. What are impacts of the family on adolescent's flow experiences?
  6. What are negative consequences of the flow experiences?

______Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., Midgley, C., Reuman, D., Mac Iver, D., & Feldlauder, H. (1993). Negative effects of traditional middle schools on students' motivation. The Elementary School Journal, 93 (5), 553-574. (option II) due 03/12 (W).

Eugene's questions:

  1. What is the evidence of early adolescents' decline in school motivation? What changes of the environment and adolescents undergo this period? How was motivation defined in the paper?
  2. What the changes do early adolescents undergo?
  3. What are the differences of traditional elementary and middle school classrooms? How do they impact children's motivation?
  4. What kind of mismatch between needs of early adolescents and the school environment? How can school be reformed to overcome this mismatch?
  5. What were the differences in the attitudes toward the students between the 7th grade (middle school) teacher and 6th grade (elementary) teachers and how could these differences impact students' motivation?

Topic 8. Development of motivation in handicapped children

______Jennings, K. D., & McTurk, R. H. (1995). The motivational characteristics of infants and children with physical and sensory impairments. In R. H. MacTurk & G. A. Morgan (Eds.), Mastery motivation : Origins, conceptualizations, and applications, Vol. 12. Norwood, N.J. : Ablex.(option I) due 03/19 (W).

Eugene's questions:

  1. What are the differences in development of activity skills and parental social interaction in children with or without physical sensory disabilities?
  2. What are differences and similarities in developmental of mastery motivation in children with or without physical sensory disabilities?
  3. How can parents' overprotectiveness impact motivation development? How are parents' role and behavior different in families with children with or without physical sensory disabilities? What is the evidence for that?
  4. What are impacts of activity contexts on motivation of children with physical disabilities?
  5. How can motivation development of deaf children from family with deaf parents be different from deaf children from family with both hearing parents?
  6. How does blindness affect child's social interaction with the parents (especially non-blind parents) what are the consequences of that for motivation development?
  7. After reading the chapter, what do you think creates risk for motivation development in physically disabled children: the handicap itself, reaction and insensitivity of the parents, "unpreparedness" of the culture and society, or else?

______Hupp, S. C. (1995). The impact of mental retardation on motivated behavior. In R. H. MacTurk & G. A. Morgan (Eds.), Mastery motivation : Origins, conceptualizations, and applications, Vol. 12. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex. (option II) due 03/19 (W).

Eugene's questions:

  1. How does the literature on special education describes motivation of mentally retarded children? What are the questions discussed in the paper?
  2. How can motivation of mentally disabled children can be described? What are similarities and differences in motivation between children with and without mental retardation?
  3. What are impacts of failure and social disapproval on motivation developmental of children with mental retardation?
  4. What are the impacts of institutionalization on children with mental retardation?
  5. Why does late in the childhood motivation of children with mental retardation alter from motivation development of children without mental retardation?

Topic 9. More on cultural variations and motivation

______Triandis, H. C. (1995). Motivation and achievement in collectivist and individualist cultures. In M. L. Maehr & P. R. Pinntrich (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement: Culture, motivation and achievement, Vol. 9. London: JAI Press. (Option I) due 03/31 (M).

Eugene's questions:

  1. What are general differences regarding to achievement and motivation between collectivist and individualist cultures? Give examples.
  2. What are the differences defining collectivist and individualist cultures? Give examples. What are vertical and horizontal dimensions and their functions for the analysis of cultures? How can a real society be represented with these abstract categories?
  3. What are the factors of societies' or individual people's shifting to become more individualistic or collectivist?
  4. How do collectivist and individualist cultures assess their ability, chances for success (and failure), and explanation for their success (and failure) and why?
  5. Where is locus of motivation situated in collectivist and individualist cultures? What determines motivation in collectivist and individualist cultures? What are understanding of progress in collectivist and individualist cultures?
  6. How did the author explain school success of many immigrants from collectivist cultures?
  7. Have you find overgeneralization in descriptions of collectivist and individualist cultures? If so, give examples.

______Salili, F. (1995). Explaining Chinese students' motivation and achievement: A socio-cultural analysis. In M. L. Maehr & P. R. Pinntrich (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement: Culture, motivation and achievement, Vol. 9. London: JAI Press. (Option II) due 03/31 (M).

Eugene's questions:

  1. How can Chinese students be described regarding school achievement and motivation? What is the evidence supporting these descriptions?
  2. What are cultural and historical background of Chinese society and how do these background contribute to shaping motivation in children?
  3. How does collectivism impact motivation? What is the role of social shame in achievement?
  4. What are family and educational environments for Chinese students and how do they contribute to development of motivation? How do job opportunities for educated graduates impact motivation?
  5. What is criticism of previous cross-cultural research on motivation?
  6. What is meaning of achievement, need for achievement, and academic achievement attribution for Chinese students?
  7. How does motivation of Chinese students differ from motivation of Western students?


Topic 10. Handicapped culture and handicapped motivation

______McDermott, R. (1993). The acquisition of a child by a learning disability. In S. Chaiklin & J. Lave (Eds.), Understanding practice: Perspectives on activity and context. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. (Option I) due 04/02 (W).
______McDermott, R., (1987). The explanation of minority school failure, again. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 18(4), 361-364. (Option I) due 04/02 (W).

Eugene's questions:

  1. Why, according to McDermott, are conceptual and methodological constructs difficult to apply to everyday activities involving cognition? What is "ecological invalidity"?
  2. What was McDermott's description of learning disability? What is his hypothesis about learning disability? Does McDermott's hypothesis fit to these children? Do you agree with his hypothesis?
  3. What is institutional arrangements that, according to McDermott construct learning disability? Why do you think these arrangements are in place (what are their social, economic, and political functions)?
  4. What were the contexts of Adam's motivational, cognitive, and learning abilities and competence and what were the contexts of his cognitive and learning disability and incompetence? What were similarities and differences between these contexts? Who and how organized and contributed to these contexts?
  5. Why does McDermott argue that learning disability did not belong to Adam? How does McDermott define learning?
  6. What is deficit theory and why is not it useful for description of Adam's behavior across contexts according to McDermott? What are "degradation ceremonies" in different practices what are their functions? What are the roles of competition, testing, arbitrary limitations for help, displaying of knowledge in constructing learning disability?
  7. What is McDermott's explanation of minority school failure? Can his explanation applied to all children who fail in school? What his suggestions to avoid school failure? Do agree with his analysis?

______Eckert, P. (1989). Jocks and Burnouts: Social Categories and Identity in the High School. New York: Teacher College Press. Chapters 1 & 7. (Option II) due 04/02 (W).

Eugene's questions:

  1. Who are Jocks and Burnouts? What socio-economic classes they come from and going to? Does your own schooling experience support Eckert's observations?
  2. What do Jocks and Burnouts learn in school? What are differences in similarities in learning curricula (versus teaching curricula) between Jocks and Burnouts?
  3. How does students' motivation manifest in activities (and interests) they choose to do in school? What is attitude school administration and teachers to the activities Jocks and Burnouts choose to do?
  4. Using the examples of Jocks and Burnouts, discuss socially constructed types of motivation.
  5. How is Burnout motivation grounded in their present and future sociocultural ecology? How does school contribute to such motivation?

Topic 11. Gender differences in motivation

______Horner, M. S. (1972). Toward an understanding of achievement-related conflicts in women. Journal of Social Issues, 28 (2), 157-175. (Option I) due 04/04 (F).

Eugene's questions:

  1. How were women's motivation and achievement described in the past?
  2. What are reasons for claimed women's avoiding achievement? What social, historical, political, and cultural factors contribute to the phenomenon? What is presented evidence supporting the claim?
  3. Who are more leaning toward avoiding achievement and in what are circumstances provoking such a phenomenon? What is the evidence for that?
  4. How do girls learn to avoid achievement? Who (and/or what) responsible for such development?
  5. How to minimize women's avoiding achievement?
  6. Do you think that now there is different situation regarding women's achievement and motivation? If so, how different it is?

______Fennema, E. Walberg, H., & Marrett, C. (1985). Explaining sex-related differences in mathematics: Theoretical models. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 16, 303-320. (Option II) due 04/04 (F).

Eugene's questions:

  1. What is the evidence of gender differences in math achievement? What are specific differences and school grades when the differences appear? What was a biological explanation of the differences and what counter-evidence has been accumulated against biological explanation?
  2. What are factors contributing to the observed differences? Provide examples and evidence.
  3. How does teacher-student interaction (or its lack) contribute to the phenomenon?
  4. Why do female students often not choose advanced math courses?
  5. How does gender differences in ideology contribute to gender differences in math achievement?